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Betz, Timm and Amy Pond, 2022. “Liberalization.” In Jon Pevehouse and Leonard Seabrooke (eds.), Oxford Handbook of International Political Economy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, available online.

Liberalization is the removal of barriers to the cross-border movement of capital, goods, and people. Understanding liberalization is central to understanding how governments respond to and shape the global economy. This article reviews the literature on liberalization from a public-goods perspective, where liberalization is seen as benefiting the population as a whole, and from a private-goods perspective, where liberalization benefits a select few. These perspectives are united by questions over who supports liberalization, when liberalization occurs, and how governments liberalize markets. The article further explores the methods and approaches used by American International Political Economy (IPE), represented by articles published in International Organization, and British IPE, represented by articles published in the Review of International Political Economy.


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